Provisioning times vary based on the operating system and platform. Sampling the time to create (apply) and destroy clusters with 1 controller and 2 workers shows (roughly) what to expect.
|AWS||6 min||4 min|
|Azure||7 min||7 min|
|Digital Ocean||3 min 30 sec||20 sec|
|Google Cloud||7 min||6 min|
- SOA TTL and NXDOMAIN caching can have a large impact on provision time
- Platforms with auto-scaling take more time to provision (AWS, Azure, Google)
- Bare-metal POST times and network bandwidth will affect provision times
Network performance varies based on the platform and CNI plugin.
iperf was used to measure the bandwidth between different hosts and different pods. Host-to-host shows typical bandwidth between host machines. Pod-to-pod shows the bandwidth between two
|Platform / Plugin||Theory||Host to Host||Pod to Pod|
|AWS (flannel)||5 Gb/s||4.94 Gb/s||4.89 Gb/s|
|AWS (calico, MTU 1480)||5 Gb/s||4.94 Gb/s||4.42 Gb/s|
|AWS (calico, MTU 8981)||5 Gb/s||4.94 Gb/s||4.75 Gb/s|
|Azure (flannel)||Varies||749 Mb/s||680 Mb/s|
|Bare-Metal (flannel)||1 Gb/s||940 Mb/s||903 Mb/s|
|Bare-Metal (calico)||1 Gb/s||940 Mb/s||931 Mb/s|
|Bare-Metal (flannel, bond)||3 Gb/s||2.3 Gb/s||1.17 Gb/s|
|Bare-Metal (calico, bond)||3 Gb/s||2.3 Gb/s||1.17 Gb/s|
|Digital Ocean||2 Gb/s||1.97 Gb/s||1.64 Gb/s|
|Google Cloud (flannel)||2 Gb/s||1.94 Gb/s||1.76 Gb/s|
|Google Cloud (calico)||2 Gb/s||1.94 Gb/s||1.81 Gb/s|
- Calico and Flannel have comparable performance. Platform and configuration differences dominate.
- AWS and Azure node bandwidth (i.e. upper bound) depends greatly on machine type
- Only certain AWS EC2 instance types allow jumbo frames. This is why the default MTU on AWS must be 1480.
- Neither CNI provider seems to be able to leverage bonded NICs well (bare-metal)