Skip to content

Digital Ocean

Danger

Typhoon for Fedora Atomic is alpha. Expect rough edges and changes.

In this tutorial, we'll create a Kubernetes v1.12.2 cluster on DigitalOcean with Fedora Atomic.

We'll declare a Kubernetes cluster using the Typhoon Terraform module. Then apply the changes to create controller droplets, worker droplets, DNS records, tags, and TLS assets. Instances are provisioned on first boot with cloud-init.

Controllers are provisioned to run an etcd peer and a kubelet service. Workers run just a kubelet service. A one-time bootkube bootstrap schedules the apiserver, scheduler, controller-manager, and coredns on controllers and schedules kube-proxy and flannel on every node. A generated kubeconfig provides kubectl access to the cluster.

Requirements

  • Digital Ocean Account and Token
  • Digital Ocean Domain (registered Domain Name or delegated subdomain)
  • Terraform v0.11.x installed locally

Terraform Setup

Install Terraform v0.11.x on your system.

$ terraform version
Terraform v0.11.7

Read concepts to learn about Terraform, modules, and organizing resources. Change to your infrastructure repository (e.g. infra).

cd infra/clusters

Provider

Login to DigitalOcean or create an account, if you don't have one.

Generate a Personal Access Token with read/write scope from the API tab. Write the token to a file that can be referenced in configs.

mkdir -p ~/.config/digital-ocean
echo "TOKEN" > ~/.config/digital-ocean/token

Configure the DigitalOcean provider to use your token in a providers.tf file.

provider "digitalocean" {
  version = "1.0.0"
  token = "${chomp(file("~/.config/digital-ocean/token"))}"
  alias = "default"
}

provider "local" {
  version = "~> 1.0"
  alias = "default"
}

provider "null" {
  version = "~> 1.0"
  alias = "default"
}

provider "template" {
  version = "~> 1.0"
  alias = "default"
}

provider "tls" {
  version = "~> 1.0"
  alias = "default"
}

Cluster

Define a Kubernetes cluster using the module digital-ocean/fedora-atomic/kubernetes.

module "digital-ocean-nemo" {
  source = "git::https://github.com/poseidon/typhoon//digital-ocean/fedora-atomic/kubernetes?ref=v1.12.2"

  providers = {
    digitalocean = "digitalocean.default"
    local = "local.default"
    null = "null.default"
    template = "template.default"
    tls = "tls.default"
  }

  # Digital Ocean
  cluster_name = "nemo"
  region       = "nyc3"
  dns_zone     = "digital-ocean.example.com"

  # configuration
  ssh_authorized_key = "ssh-rsa AAAAB3Nz..."
  ssh_fingerprints = ["d7:9d:79:ae:56:32:73:79:95:88:e3:a2:ab:5d:45:e7"]
  asset_dir        = "/home/user/.secrets/clusters/nemo"

  # optional
  worker_count = 2
  worker_type  = "s-1vcpu-1gb"
}

Reference the variables docs or the variables.tf source.

ssh-agent

Initial bootstrapping requires bootkube.service be started on one controller node. Terraform uses ssh-agent to automate this step. Add your SSH private key to ssh-agent.

ssh-add ~/.ssh/id_rsa
ssh-add -L

Apply

Initialize the config directory if this is the first use with Terraform.

terraform init

Plan the resources to be created.

$ terraform plan
Plan: 54 to add, 0 to change, 0 to destroy.

Apply the changes to create the cluster.

$ terraform apply
module.digital-ocean-nemo.null_resource.bootkube-start: Still creating... (30s elapsed)
module.digital-ocean-nemo.null_resource.bootkube-start: Provisioning with 'remote-exec'...
...
module.digital-ocean-nemo.null_resource.bootkube-start: Still creating... (6m20s elapsed)
module.digital-ocean-nemo.null_resource.bootkube-start: Creation complete (ID: 7599298447329218468)

Apply complete! Resources: 54 added, 0 changed, 0 destroyed.

In 3-6 minutes, the Kubernetes cluster will be ready.

Verify

Install kubectl on your system. Use the generated kubeconfig credentials to access the Kubernetes cluster and list nodes.

$ export KUBECONFIG=/home/user/.secrets/clusters/nemo/auth/kubeconfig
$ kubectl get nodes
NAME             STATUS    AGE       VERSION
10.132.110.130   Ready     10m       v1.12.2
10.132.115.81    Ready     10m       v1.12.2
10.132.124.107   Ready     10m       v1.12.2

List the pods.

NAMESPACE     NAME                                       READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
kube-system   coredns-1187388186-ld1j7                   1/1       Running   0          11m
kube-system   kube-apiserver-n10qr                       1/1       Running   0          11m
kube-system   kube-controller-manager-3271970485-37gtw   1/1       Running   1          11m
kube-system   kube-controller-manager-3271970485-p52t5   1/1       Running   0          11m
kube-system   kube-flannel-1cq1v                         2/2       Running   0          11m
kube-system   kube-flannel-hq9t0                         2/2       Running   1          11m
kube-system   kube-flannel-v0g9w                         2/2       Running   0          11m
kube-system   kube-proxy-6kxjf                           1/1       Running   0          11m
kube-system   kube-proxy-fh3td                           1/1       Running   0          11m
kube-system   kube-proxy-k35rc                           1/1       Running   0          11m
kube-system   kube-scheduler-3895335239-2bc4c            1/1       Running   0          11m
kube-system   kube-scheduler-3895335239-b7q47            1/1       Running   1          11m
kube-system   pod-checkpointer-pr1lq                     1/1       Running   0          11m
kube-system   pod-checkpointer-pr1lq-10.132.115.81       1/1       Running   0          10m

Going Further

Learn about maintenance and addons.

Variables

Check the variables.tf source.

Required

Name Description Example
cluster_name Unique cluster name (prepended to dns_zone) nemo
region Digital Ocean region nyc1, sfo2, fra1, tor1
dns_zone Digital Ocean domain (i.e. DNS zone) do.example.com
ssh_authorized_key SSH public key for user 'fedora' "ssh-rsa AAAAB3NZ..."
ssh_fingerprints SSH public key fingerprints ["d7:9d..."]
asset_dir Path to a directory where generated assets should be placed (contains secrets) /home/user/.secrets/nemo

DNS Zone

Clusters create DNS A records ${cluster_name}.${dns_zone} to resolve to controller droplets (round robin). This FQDN is used by workers and kubectl to access the apiserver(s). In this example, the cluster's apiserver would be accessible at nemo.do.example.com.

You'll need a registered domain name or delegated subdomain in Digital Ocean Domains (i.e. DNS zones). You can set this up once and create many clusters with unique names.

resource "digitalocean_domain" "zone-for-clusters" {
  name       = "do.example.com"
  # Digital Ocean oddly requires an IP here. You may have to delete the A record it makes. :(
  ip_address = "8.8.8.8"
}

If you have an existing domain name with a zone file elsewhere, just delegate a subdomain that can be managed on DigitalOcean (e.g. do.mydomain.com) and update nameservers.

SSH Fingerprints

DigitalOcean droplets are created with your SSH public key "fingerprint" (i.e. MD5 hash) to allow access. If your SSH public key is at ~/.ssh/id_rsa, find the fingerprint with,

ssh-keygen -E md5 -lf ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub | awk '{print $2}'
MD5:d7:9d:79:ae:56:32:73:79:95:88:e3:a2:ab:5d:45:e7

If you use ssh-agent (e.g. Yubikey for SSH), find the fingerprint with,

ssh-add -l -E md5
2048 MD5:d7:9d:79:ae:56:32:73:79:95:88:e3:a2:ab:5d:45:e7 cardno:000603633110 (RSA)

Digital Ocean requires the SSH public key be uploaded to your account, so you may also find the fingerprint under Settings -> Security. Finally, if you don't have an SSH key, create one now.

Optional

Name Description Default Example
controller_count Number of controllers (i.e. masters) 1 1
worker_count Number of workers 1 3
controller_type Droplet type for controllers s-2vcpu-2gb s-2vcpu-2gb, s-2vcpu-4gb, s-4vcpu-8gb, ...
worker_type Droplet type for workers s-1vcpu-1gb s-1vcpu-1gb, s-1vcpu-2gb, s-2vcpu-2gb, ...
pod_cidr CIDR IPv4 range to assign to Kubernetes pods "10.2.0.0/16" "10.22.0.0/16"
service_cidr CIDR IPv4 range to assign to Kubernetes services "10.3.0.0/16" "10.3.0.0/24"
cluster_domain_suffix FQDN suffix for Kubernetes services answered by coredns. "cluster.local" "k8s.example.com"

Check the list of valid droplet types or use doctl compute size list.

Warning

Do not choose a controller_type smaller than 2GB. Smaller droplets are not sufficient for running a controller and bootstrapping will fail.